Saturday, July 9, 2011

Verbs

Definition: A Verb is a word which states something about a person or thing.

*A Verb is a word used for saying something about some person or thing. --> J. C. Nesfield.

*A Verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. --> Wren & Martin.

Finite Verb & the Non-finite Verb
Verbs are of mainly two kinds (classes), like:
i. Finite Verb.
ii. Non-finite Verb.

Finite Verb
Definition: A finite Verb is a verb that completes the speech of a sentence.

Or, A finite Verb is a verb which expresses the complete speech of a sentence.
Examples:
01. Mother cooks food every day.
02. We visited Cox’s Bazaar last week.

Non-finite Verb
Definition: A non-finite Verb is a verb that can’t complete the speech of a sentence and it’s form is not changed according to the subject and the Tense.
Examples:
01. I want to cook food today.
02. My sister wants to learn English.

Principal & Auxiliary verbs
Again, A Finite verb is divided (classified) into two heads, namely:
i. Principal Verb or Main verb.
ii. Auxiliary Verb or Helping Verb.

Principal Verb
Definition: A principal verb can complete the meaning of a sentence independently without the helping of other verbs.

Or, A principal Verb is used independently in a sentence.
Examples:
01. The boy reads with full attention.
02. We swim is the pond every day.

Auxiliary Verb
Definition: An Auxiliary Verb only assists (helps) a principal verb to from tense, Mood or Voice.

Or, An Auxiliary Verb is a Verb which only assists a principal Verb to complete the speech of a sentence.
Examples:
01. We were playing football.
02. The girl was singing a song.
03. We can do the work easily.

Classes of the principal verb
Again, principal Verb is classified into two heads, like:
i. Transitive Verb.
ii. Intransitive Verb.

Transitive Verb
Definition: A transitive Verb has an object to complete the speech (meaning) of a sentence.

Or, A transitive Verb is a Verb which has an object to express the speech of a sentence.

*A Verb is Intransitive when the action stops with the agent, and does not pass form the agent to something else. --> J. C. Nesfield.
Examples:
01. We love our motherland from heart.
02. We always seek help of Allah/God.

Kinds of the Transitive Verbs
Again, Transitive Verbs are divided into four heads (kinds), like:
i. Factitive Verb.
ii. Quasi-passive Verb.
iii. Reflexive Verb.
iv. Reciprocal Verb.

Factitive Verb
Definition: A Factitive Verb is a verb which takes one more object to complete the speech of the sentence.

Some common Factitive Verbs: elect, select, appoint, name, call, make, find, consider, regard, think, nominate, entitle, choose, crown, etc.
Examples:
01. Father named me Raqeeb.
02. I found a man asleep.
03. People call the man a liar.

Quasi-passive Verb
Definition: A Quasi-passive Verb is a verb which is Active in form but passive in sense.
Structure:
i. Subject+ Verb+ Adjective.
ii. Subject+ to be verb+ Principal Verb+ ing.
Examples:
01. Stone feels hard.
02. The magazine reads funny.
03. The rose smells sweet.

Reflexive Verb
Definition: A Transitive Verb having a similar Subject and a similar Object is called a Reflexive Verb.

Reflexive Object’s are: myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves, etc.
Examples:
01. The man cut wood himself.
02. He worked out himself.
03. You hurt yourselves.

Reciprocal Verb
Definition: The Verb which denotes or shows a mutual relation between the Subject and the Object of a sentence is called a Reciprocal Verb.

The Reciprocal Verb’s are: one another, each other, etc.
Examples:
01. The farmer talks to one another.
02. Jon and Tom love each other.

Intransitive Verb
Definition: An Intransitive Verb is a verb which has no Object to complete the speech of a sentence.

Or, A Verb having no Object is known as an Intransitive Verb.

*Most Verbs can be used both as Transitive and as Intransitive Verbs. --> Wren & Martin.
Examples:
01. Now the boy is sleeping.
02. Birds fly.
03. The baby is crying.

Kinds of the Intransitive Verb
The Intransitive Verb is divided into two heads (kinds) like:
a. Intransitive Verb of Complete Prediction.
b. Intransitive Verb of Incomplete Prediction.

Again, the Intransitive Verb of Incomplete Prediction is divided into four heads, like:
a. Copulative Verb or Linking Verb.
b. Cognate Verb.
c. Causative Verb.
d. Group Verb or Prepositional Verb.

Copulative Verb or Linking Verb
Definition: Copulative Verb or Linking Verb is an Intransitive Verb which can’t complete the speech of a sentence without the help of a complement.

Common Copulative Verb’s are: ‘To be’ Verb (am, is, are, was, were, have been, has been, and had been), grow, become, look, feel, appear, prove, seems, remain, get, smell, etc.

Examples:
01. Iron feels hard.
02. The students of our college are very studious.

Cognate Verb
Definition: The Intransitive Verb which takes a similar Noun as an Object and is used as a Transitive Verb is called a Cognate Verb.

**Note:
01. The Object of a Cognate Verb is called a Cognate Object.
02. The Object of a Reflexive Verb is called a Reflexive Object.
Examples:
01. The man died a heroic death.
02. I dreamt a happy dream.

Causative Verb
Definition: When an Intransitive Verb Causes to happen something and is used as a Transitive Verb, it is called a Causative Verb.
Examples:
01. Father teaches me.
02. Mother feeds her child.

Group Verb or Prepositional Verb
Definition:  A Preposition Added to an Intransitive Verb that (before or after) makes it Transitive is known as a Group Verb or Prepositional Verb or a compound Verb.

The Intransitive Verb
The Group Verb
a. laugh
b. come
c. live
d. go
e. get
f. look
g. tell
h. take
i. carry
a. Don’t laugh at the blind.
b. We must overcome the difficulty.
c. The cow lives on grass.
d. I have gone through the book.
e. I have got through the book.
f. We should look after old parents.
g. Smoking tells upon our health.
h. Cancer takes off many lives every year.
i. Aids carry away many lives every year.

 The Classes of Auxiliary Verbs
The Auxiliary Verbs are mainly two classes, like:
i. Primary Auxiliary Verbs.
   Or, Ordinary Auxiliary Verbs.
ii. Defective Auxiliary Verbs.

Again, Primary Auxiliary Verbs are divided into three heads (kinds), like:
i. ‘to be’ verb.
ii. ‘To do’ verb.
iii. ‘To have’ verb.

Primary Auxiliary Verbs
Definition: Primary Auxiliary Verbs refer to the common name of ‘to do’ and ‘to have’ Verb.
Examples:
‘To be’ Verb: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been.
‘To do’ Verb: do, does, did, etc.
‘To have’ Verb: have, has, had, etc.

Defective Auxiliary Verbs
Definition: Defective Auxiliary Verbs are the Verbs which have no all the regular forms like other Verbs.

Some common Defective Auxiliary Verbs:  Can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must, need, needed, dare, dared ought to, used to, etc.
Examples:
01. We must die sooner or later.
02. It may rain today.

The Classes of Non-finite Verb
Non-finite Verbs are of main three classes, like:
a. Participle (Double parts of speech)
b. Gerund (Double parts of speech)
c. Infinitive

Participle
Definition: A Participle is a Double parts of speech having the force of a Verb and an Adjective.

Or, A Participle is a word which dose the function of a Verb and an Adjective.

The Classes of Participle
i. Present Participle (V + ing).
ii. Past Participle (Past Participle of Verb).
iii. Perfect Participle (having + Past Participle of Verb).
Or, Compound Participle.

Present Participle
Definition: The Participle which by adding ‘ing’ to the Verb does the function of a Verb and an Adjective is called a Present Participle.

Past Participle
Definition: The Participle which adds ‘ed, d, en, t, n, en, ne’ to the Verb having the force of a Verb and an Adjective in a sentence is called a Past Participle.

Perfect Participle or Compound Participle
Definition: A Perfect Participle is a Non-finite Verb containing “having plus Past Participle” form and does the function of a Verb and an Adjective in a sentence.

Gerund
Definition: A Gerund is that forms of the Verb which ends in ‘ing’ and has the force of a Noun and a Verb.

Or, A Gerund is a double-part of speech adding ‘ing’ form to a Verb and does the function of a Verb and a Noun in a sentence.

Infinitive
Definition: An Infinitive is a Non-finite Verb which simply denotes (names) the action without denoting (naming) the Subject or doer.
Examples:
01. We went there to see him.
02. To waste time is foolish.

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