Saturday, July 9, 2011

Oxford 3000-(Part-01)

The Oxford 3000™
The keywords of the Oxford 3000 have been carefully selected by a group of language experts and experienced teachers as the words which should receive priority in vocabulary study because of their importance and usefulness. The selection is based on three criteria.
The words which occur most frequently in English are included, based on the information in the British National Corpus and the Oxford Corpus Collection. (A corpus is an electronically held collection of written or spoken texts, often consisting of hundreds of millions of words.) However, being frequent in the corpus alone is not enough for a word to qualify as a keyword: it may be that the word is used very frequently, but only in a narrowly defined area, such as newspapers or scientific articles. In order to avoid including these restricted words, we include as keywords only those words which are frequent across a range of different types of text. In other words, keywords are both frequent and used in a variety of contexts. In addition, the list includes some very important words which happen not to be used frequently, even though they are very familiar to most users of English. These include, for example, words for parts of the body, words used in travel, and words which are useful for explaining what you mean when you do not know the exact word for something. These words were identified by consulting a panel of over seventy experts in the fields of teaching and language study.

a, an indefinite article
abandon v.
abandoned adj.
ability n.
able adj.
unable adj.
about adv., prep.
above prep., adv.
abroad adv.
absence n.
absent adj.
absolute adj.
absolutely adv.
absorb v.
abuse n., v.
academic adj.
accent n.
accept v.
acceptable adj.
unacceptable adj.
access n.
accident n.
by accident
accidental adj.
accidentally adv.
accommodation n.
accompany v.
according to prep.
account n., v.
accurate adj.
accurately adv.
accuse v.
achieve v.
achievement n.
acid n.
acknowledge v.
acquire v.
across adv., prep.
act n., v.
action n.
take action
active adj.
actively adv.
activity n.
actor, actress n.
actual adj.
actually adv.
ad—advertisement
adapt v.
add v.
addition n.
in addition (to)
additional adj.
address n., v.
adequate adj.
adequately adv.
adjust v.
admiration n.
admire v.
admit v.
adopt v.
adult n., adj.
advance n., v.
advanced adj.
in advance
advantage n.
take advantage of
adventure n.
advertise v.
advertising n.
advertisement (also ad, advert) n.
advice n.
advise v.
affair n.
affect v.
affection n.
afford v.
afraid adj.
after prep., conj., adv.
afternoon n.
afterwards (especially BrE; NAmE usually afterward) adv.
again adv.
against prep.
age n.
aged adj.
agency n.
agent n.
aggressive adj.
ago adv.
agree v.
agreement n.
ahead adv.
aid n., v.
aim n., v.
air n.
aircraft n.
airport n.
alarm n., v.
alarming adj.
alarmed adj.
alcohol n.
alcoholic adj., n.
alive adj.
all det., pron., adv.
allow v.
all right adj., adv., exclamation
ally n., v.
allied adj.
almost adv.
alone adj., adv.
along prep., adv.
alongside prep., adv.
aloud adv.
alphabet n.
alphabetical adj.
alphabetically adv.
already adv.
also adv.
alter v.
alternative n., adj.
alternatively adv.
although conj.
altogether adv.
always adv.
a.m. (NAmE also A.M.) abbr.
amaze v.
amazing adj.
amazed adj.
ambition n.
ambulance n.
among (also amongst) prep.
amount n., v.
amuse v.
amusing adj.
amused adj.
an -->a, an
analyse (BrE) (NAmE analyze) v.
analysis n.
ancient adj.
and conj.
anger n.
angle n.
angry adj.
angrily adv.
animal n.
ankle n.
anniversary n.
announce v.
annoy v.
annoying adj.
annoyed adj.
annual adj.
annually adv.
another det., pron.
answer n., v.
anti- prefix
anticipate v.
anxiety n.
anxious adj.
anxiously adv.
any det., pron., adv.
anyone (also anybody) pron.
anything pron.
anyway adv.
anywhere adv.
apart adv.
apart from (also aside from especially in NAmE) prep.
apartment n. (especially NAmE)
apologize (BrE also -ise) v.
apparent adj.
apparently adv.
appeal n., v.
appear v.
appearance n.
apple n.
application n.
apply v.
appoint v.
appointment n.
appreciate v.
approach v., n.
appropriate adj.
approval n.
approve (of) v.
approving adj.
approximate adj.
approximately adv.
April n. (abbr. Apr.)
area n.
argue v.
argument n.
arise v.
arm n., v.
arms n.
armed adj.
army n.
around adv., prep.
arrange v.
arrangement n.
arrest v., n.
arrival n.
arrive v.
arrow n.
art n.
article n.
artificial adj.
artificially adv.
artist n.
artistic adj.
as prep., adv., conj.
ashamed adj.
aside adv.
aside from—apart from
ask v.
asleep adj.
fall asleep
aspect n.
assist v.
assistance n.
assistant n., adj.
associate v.
associated with
association n.
assume v.
assure v.
at prep.
atmosphere n.
atom n.
attach v.
attached adj.
attack n., v.
attempt n., v.
attempted adj.
attend v.
attention n.
pay attention
attitude n.
attorney n. (especially NAmE)
attract v.
attraction n.
attractive adj.
audience n.
August n. (abbr. Aug.)
aunt n.
author n.
authority n.
automatic adj.
automatically adv.
autumn n. (especially BrE)
available adj.
average adj., n.
avoid v.
awake adj.
award n., v.
aware adj.
away adv.
awful adj.
awfully adv.
awkward adj.
awkwardly adv.
baby n.
back n., adj., adv., v.
background n.
backwards (also backward especially in NAmE) adv.
backward adj.
bacteria n.
bad adj.
go bad
badly adv.
bad-tempered adj.
bag n.
baggage n. (especially NAmE)
bake v.
balance n., v.
ball n.
ban v., n.
band n.
bandage n., v.
bank n.
bar n.
bargain n.
barrier n.
base n., v.
based on
basic adj.
basically adv.
basis n.
bath n.
bathroom n.
battery n.
battle n.
bay n.
be v., auxiliary v.
beach n.
beak n.
bear v.
beard n.
beat n., v.
beautiful adj.
beautifully adv.
beauty n.
because conj.
because of prep.
become v.
bed n.
bedroom n.
beef n.
beer n.
before prep., conj., adv.
begin v.
beginning n.
behalf n.: on behalf of sb, on sb’s behalf (BrE) (NAmE in behalf of sb, in sb’s behalf)
behave v.
behaviour (BrE) (NAmE behavior) n.
behind prep., adv.
belief n.
believe v.
bell n.
belong v.
below prep., adv.
belt n.
bend v., n.
bent adj.
beneath prep., adv.
benefit n., v.
beside prep.
bet v., n.
betting n.
better, best—good, well
between prep., adv.
beyond prep., adv.
bicycle (also bike) n.
bid v., n.
big adj.
bill n.
bin n. (BrE)
biology n.
bird n.
birth n.
give birth (to)
birthday n.
biscuit n. (BrE)
bit n. (especially BrE)
a bit
bite v., n.
bitter adj.
bitterly adv.
black adj., n.
blade n.
blame v., n.
blank adj., n.
blankly adv.
blind adj.
block n., v.
blonde adj., n., blond adj.
blood n.
blow v., n.
blue adj., n.
board n., v.
on board
boat n.
body n.
boil v.
bomb n., v.
bone n.
book n., v.
boot n.
border n.
bore v.
boring adj.
bored adj.
born: be born v.
borrow v.
boss n.
both det., pron.
bother v.
bottle n.
bottom n., adj.
bound adj.: bound to
bowl n.
box n.
boy n.
boyfriend n.
brain n.
branch n.
brand n.
brave adj.
bread n.
break v., n.
broken adj.
breakfast n.
breast n.
breath n.
breathe v.
breathing n.
breed v., n.
brick n.
bridge n.
brief adj.
briefly adv.
bright adj.
brightly adv.
brilliant adj.
bring v.
broad adj.
broadly adv.
broadcast v., n.
broken—break
brother n.
brown adj., n.
brush n., v.
bubble n.
budget n.
build v.
building n.
bullet n.
bunch n.
burn v.
burnt adj.
burst v.
bury v.
bus n.
bush n.
business n.
businessman, businesswoman n.
busy adj.
but conj.
butter n.
button n.
buy v.
buyer n.
by prep., adv.
bye exclamation
c abbr.—cent
cabinet n.
cable n.
cake n.
calculate v.
calculation n.
call v., n.
be called
calm adj., v., n.
calmly adv.
camera n.
camp n., v.
camping n.
campaign n.
can modal v., n.
cannot
could modal v.
cancel v.
cancer n.
candidate n.
candy n. (NAmE)
cap n.
capable (of) adj.
capacity n.
capital n., adj.
captain n.
capture v., n.
car n.
card n.
cardboard n.
care n., v.
take care (of)
care for
career n.
careful adj.
carefully adv.
careless adj.
carelessly adv.
carpet n.
carrot n.
carry v.
case n.
in case (of)
cash n.
cast v., n.
castle n.
cat n.
catch v.
category n.
cause n., v.
CD n.
cease v.
ceiling n.
celebrate v.
celebration n.
cell n.
cellphone (also cellular phone) n. (especially NAmE)
cent n. (abbr. c, ct)
centimetre (BrE) (NAmE centimeter) n. (abbr. cm)
central adj.
centre (BrE) (NAmE center) n.
century n.
ceremony n.
certain adj., pron.
certainly adv.
uncertain adj.
certificate n.
chain n., v.
chair n.
chairman, chairwoman n.
challenge n., v.
chamber n.
chance n.
change v., n.
channel n.
chapter n.
character n.
characteristic adj., n.
charge n., v.
in charge of
charity n.
chart n., v.
chase v., n.
chat v., n.
cheap adj.
cheaply adv.
cheat v., n.
check v., n.
cheek n.
cheerful adj.
cheerfully adv.
cheese n.
chemical adj., n.
chemist n.
chemist’s n. (BrE)
chemistry n.
cheque n. (BrE) (NAmE check)
chest n.
chew v.
chicken n.
chief adj., n.
child n.
chin n.
chip n.
chocolate n.
choice n.
choose v.
chop v.
church n.
cigarette n.
cinema n. (especially BrE)
circle n.
circumstance n.
citizen n.
city n.
civil adj.
claim v., n.
clap v., n.
class n.
classic adj., n.
classroom n.
clean adj., v.
clear adj., v.
clearly adv.
clerk n.
clever adj.
click v., n.
client n.
climate n.
climb v.
climbing n.
clock n.
close /kləʊs, NAmE kloʊs/ adj.
closely adv.
close /kləʊz, NAmE kləʊz/ v.
closed adj.
closet n. (especially NAmE)
cloth n.
clothes n.
clothing n.
cloud n.
club n.
cm abbr.—centimetre
coach n.
coal n.
coast n.
coat n.
code n.
coffee n.
coin n.
cold adj., n.
coldly adv.
collapse v., n.
colleague n.
collect v.
collection n.
college n.
colour (BrE) (NAmE color) n., v.
coloured (BrE) (NAmE colored) adj.
column n.
combination n.
combine v.
come v.
comedy n.
comfort n., v.
comfortable adj.
comfortably adv.
uncomfortable adj.
command v., n.
comment n., v.
commercial adj.
commission n., v.
commit v.
commitment n.
committee n.
common adj.
in common
commonly adv.
communicate v.
communication n.
community n.
company n.
compare v.
comparison n.
compete v.
competition n.
competitive adj.
complain v.
complaint n.
complete adj., v.
completely adv.
complex adj.
complicate v.
complicated adj.
computer n.
concentrate v.
concentration n.
concept n.
concern v., n.
concerned adj.
concerning prep.
concert n.
conclude v.
conclusion n.
concrete adj., n.
condition n.
conduct v., n.
conference n.
confidence n.
confident adj.
confidently adv.
confine v.
confined adj.
confirm v.
conflict n., v.
confront v.
confuse v.
confusing adj.
confused adj.
confusion n.
congratulations n.
congress n.
connect v.
connection n.
conscious adj.
unconscious adj.
consequence n.
conservative adj.
consider v.
considerable adj.
considerably adv.
consideration n.
consist of v.
constant adj.
constantly adv.
construct v.
construction n.
consult v.
consumer n.
contact n., v.
contain v.
container n.
contemporary adj.
content n.
contest n.
context n.
continent n.
continue v.
continuous adj.
continuously adv.
contract n., v.
contrast n., v.
contrasting adj.
contribute v.
contribution n.
control n., v.
in control (of)
under control
controlled adj.
uncontrolled adj.
convenient adj.
convention n.
conventional adj.
conversation n.
convert v.
convince v.
cook v., n.
cooking n.
cooker n. (BrE)
cookie n. (especially NAmE)
cool adj., v.
cope (with) v.
copy n., v.
core n.
corner n.
correct adj., v.
correctly adv.
cost n., v.
cottage n.
cotton n.
cough v., n.
coughing n.
could—can
council n.
count v.
counter n.
country n.
countryside n.
county n.
couple n.
a couple
courage n.
course n.
of course
court n.
cousin n.
cover v., n.
covered adj.
covering n.
cow n.
crack n., v.
cracked adj.
craft n.
crash n., v.
crazy adj.
cream n., adj.
create v.
creature n.
credit n.
credit card n.
crime n.
criminal adj., n.
crisis n.
crisp adj.
criterion n.
critical adj.
criticism n.
criticize (BrE also -ise) v.
crop n.
cross n., v.
crowd n.
crowded adj.
crown n.
crucial adj.
cruel adj.
crush v.
cry v., n.
ct abbr. —cent
cultural adj.
culture n.
cup n.
cupboard n.
curb v.
cure v., n.
curious adj.
curiously adv.
curl v., n.
curly adj.
current adj., n.
currently adv.
curtain n.
curve n., v.
curved adj.
custom n.
customer n.
customs n.
cut v., n.
cycle n., v.
cycling n.
dad n.
daily adj.
damage n., v.
damp adj.
dance n., v.
dancing n.
dancer n.
danger n.
dangerous adj.
dare v.
dark adj., n.
data n.
date n., v.
daughter n.
day n.
dead adj.
deaf adj.
deal v., n.
deal with
dear adj.
death n.
debate n., v.
debt n.
decade n.
decay n., v.
December n. (abbr. Dec.)
decide v.
decision n.
declare v.
decline n., v.
decorate v.
decoration n.
decorative adj.
decrease v., n.
deep adj., adv.
deeply adv.
defeat v., n.
defence (BrE) (NAmE defense) n.
defend v.
define v.
definite adj.
definitely adv.
definition n.
degree n.
delay n., v.
deliberate adj.
deliberately adv.
delicate adj.
delight n., v.
delighted adj.
deliver v.
delivery n.
demand n., v.
demonstrate v.
dentist n.
deny v.
department n.
departure n.
depend (on) v.
deposit n., v.
depress v.
depressing adj.
depressed adj.
depth n.
derive v.
describe v.
description n.
desert n., v.
deserted adj.
deserve v.
design n., v.
desire n., v.
desk n.
desperate adj.
desperately adv.
despite prep.
destroy v.
destruction n.
detail n.
in detail
detailed adj.
determination n.
determine v.
determined adj.
develop v.
development n.
device n.
devote v.
devoted adj.
diagram n.
diamond n.
diary n.
dictionary n.
die v.
dying adj.
diet n.
difference n.
different adj.
differently adv.
difficult adj.
difficulty n.
dig v.
dinner n.
direct adj., v.
directly adv.
direction n.
director n.
dirt n.
dirty adj.
disabled adj.
disadvantage n.
disagree v.
disagreement n.
disappear v.
disappoint v.
disappointing adj.
disappointed adj.
disappointment n.
disapproval n.
disapprove (of) v.
disapproving adj.
disaster n.
disc (also disk, especially in NAmE) n.
discipline n.
discount n.
discover v.
discovery n.
discuss v.
discussion n.
disease n.
disgust v., n.
disgusting adj.
disgusted adj.
dish n.
dishonest adj.
dishonestly adv.
disk n.
dislike v., n.
dismiss v.
display v., n.
dissolve v.
distance n.
distinguish v.
distribute v.
distribution n.
district n.
disturb v.
disturbing adj.
divide v.
division n.
divorce n., v.
divorced adj.
do v., auxiliary v.
undo v.
doctor n. (abbr. Dr, NAmE Dr.)
document n.
dog n.
dollar n.
domestic adj.
dominate v.
door n.
dot n.
double adj., det., adv., n., v.
doubt n., v.
down adv., prep.
downstairs adv., adj., n.
downwards (also downward especially in NAmE) adv.
downward adj.
dozen n., det.
Dr (BrE) (also Dr. NAmE, BrE) abbr. —doctor
draft n., adj., v.
drag v.
drama n.
dramatic adj.
dramatically adv.
draw v.
drawing n.
drawer n.
dream n., v.
dress n., v.
dressed adj.
drink n., v.
drive v., n.
driving n.
driver n.
drop v., n.
drug n.
drugstore n. (NAmE)
drum n.
drunk adj.
dry adj., v.
due adj.
due to
dull adj.
dump v., n.
during prep.
dust n., v.
duty n.
DVD n.
each det., pron.
each other (also one another) pron.
ear n.
early adj., adv.
earn v.
earth n.
ease n., v.
east n., adj., adv.
eastern adj.
easy adj.
easily adv.
eat v.
economic adj.
economy n.
edge n.
edition n.
editor n.
educate v.
educated adj.
education n.
effect n.
effective adj.
effectively adv.
efficient adj.
efficiently adv.
effort n.
e.g. abbr.
egg n.
either det., pron., adv.
elbow n.
elderly adj.
elect v.
election n.
electric adj.
electrical adj.
electricity n.
electronic adj.
elegant adj.
element n.
elevator n. (NAmE)
else adv.
elsewhere adv.
email (also e-mail) n., v.
embarrass v.
embarrassing adj.
embarrassed adj.
embarrassment n.
emerge v.
emergency n.
emotion n.
emotional adj.
emotionally adv.
emphasis n.
emphasize (BrE also -ise) v.
empire n.
employ v.
unemployed adj.
employee n.
employer n.
employment n.
unemployment n.
empty adj., v.
enable v.
encounter v., n.
encourage v.
encouragement n.
end n., v.
in the end
ending n.
enemy n.
energy n.
engage v.
engaged adj.
engine n.
engineer n.
engineering n.
enjoy v.
enjoyable adj.
enjoyment n.
enormous adj.
enough det., pron., adv.
enquiry (also inquiry especially in NAmE) n.
ensure v.
enter v.
entertain v.
entertaining adj.
entertainer n.
entertainment n.
enthusiasm n.
enthusiastic adj.
entire adj.
entirely adv.
entitle v.
entrance n.
entry n.
envelope n.
environment n.
environmental adj.
equal adj., n., v.
equally adv.
equipment n.
equivalent adj., n.
error n.
escape v., n.
especially adv.
essay n.
essential adj., n.
essentially adv.
establish v.
estate n.
estimate n., v.
etc. (full form et cetera)
euro n.
even adv., adj.
evening n.
event n.
eventually adv.
ever adv.
every det.
everyone (also everybody) pron.
everything pron.
everywhere adv.
evidence n.
evil adj., n.
ex- prefix
exact adj.
exactly adv.
exaggerate v.
exaggerated adj.
exam n.
examination n.
examine v.
example n.
excellent adj.
except prep., conj.
exception n.
exchange v., n.
in exchange (for)
excite v.
exciting adj.
excited adj.
excitement n.
exclude v.
excluding prep.
excuse n., v.
executive n., adj.
exercise n., v.
exhibit v., n.
exhibition n.
exist v.
existence n.
exit n.
expand v.
expect v.
expected adj.
unexpected adj.
unexpectedly adv.
expectation n.
expense n.
expensive adj.
experience n., v.
experienced adj.
experiment n., v.
expert n., adj.
explain v.
explanation n.
explode v.
explore v.
explosion n.
export v., n.
expose v.
express v., adj.
expression n.
extend v.
extension n.
extensive adj.
extent n.
extra adj., n., adv.
extraordinary adj.
extreme adj., n.
extremely adv.
eye n.
face n., v.
facility n.
fact n.
factor n.
factory n.
fail v.
failure n.
faint adj.
faintly adv.
fair adj.
fairly adv.
unfair adj.
unfairly adv.
faith n.
faithful adj.
faithfully adv.
Yours faithfully (BrE)
fall v., n.
fall over
false adj.
fame n.
familiar adj.
family n., adj.
famous adj.
fan n.
fancy v., adj.
far adv., adj.
further adj.
farm n.
farming n.
farmer n.
farther, farthest—far
fashion n.
fashionable adj.
fast adj., adv.
fasten v.
fat adj., n.
father n.
faucet n. (NAmE)
fault n.
favour (BrE) (NAmE favor) n.
in favour/favor (of)
favourite (BrE) (NAmE favorite) adj., n.
fear n., v.
feather n.
feature n., v.
February n. (abbr. Feb.)
federal adj.
fee n.
feed v.
feel v.
feeling n.
fellow n., adj.
female adj., n.
fence n.
festival n.
fetch v.
fever n.
few det., adj., pron.
a few
field n.
fight v., n.
fighting n.
figure n., v.
file n.
fill v.
film n., v.
final adj., n.
finally adv.
finance n., v.
financial adj.
find v.
find out sth
fine adj.
finely adv.
finger n.
finish v., n.
finished adj.
fire n., v.
set fire to
firm n., adj., adv.
firmly adv.
first det., ordinal number, adv., n.
at first
fish n., v.
fishing n.
fit v., adj.
fix v.
fixed adj.
flag n.
flame n.
flash v., n.
flat adj., n.
flavour (BrE) (NAmE flavor) n., v.
flesh n.
flight n.
float v.
flood n., v.
floor n.
flour n.
flow n., v.
flower n.
flu n.
fly v., n.
flying adj., n.
focus v., n.
fold v., n.
folding adj.
follow v.
following adj., n., prep.
food n.
foot n.
football n.
for prep.
force n., v.
forecast n., v.
foreign adj.
forest n.
forever (BrE also for ever) adv.
forget v.
forgive v.
fork n.
form n., v.
formal adj.
formally adv.
former adj.
formerly adv.
formula n.
fortune n.
forward (also forwards) adv.
forward adj.
found v.
foundation n.
frame n., v.
free adj., v., adv.
freely adv.
freedom n.
freeze v.
frozen adj.
frequent adj.
frequently adv.
fresh adj.
freshly adv.
Friday n. (abbr. Fri.)
fridge n. (BrE)
friend n.
make friends (with)
friendly adj.
unfriendly adj.
friendship n.
frighten v.
frightening adj.
frightened adj.
from prep.
front n., adj.
in front (of)
frozen—freeze
fruit n.
fry v., n.
fuel n.
full adj.
fully adv.
fun n., adj.
make fun of
function n., v.
fund n., v.
fundamental adj.
funeral n.
funny adj.
fur n.
furniture n.
further, furthest—far
future n., adj.
g abbr. —gram
gain v., n.
gallon n.
gamble v., n.
gambling n.
game n.
gap n.
garage n.
garbage n. (especially NAmE)
garden n.
gas n.
gasoline n. (NAmE)
gate n.
gather v.
gear n.
general adj.
generally adv.
in general
generate v.
generation n.
generous adj.
generously adv.
gentle adj.
gently adv.
gentleman n.
genuine adj.
genuinely adv.
geography n.
get v.
get on
get off
giant n., adj.
gift n.
girl n.
girlfriend n.
give v.
give sth away
give sth out
give (sth) up
glad adj.
glass n.
glasses n.
global adj.
glove n.
glue n., v.
gm abbr. —gram
go v.
go down
go up
be going to
goal n.
god n.
gold n., adj.
good adj., n.
good at
good for
goodbye exclamation, n.
goods n.
govern v.
government n.
governor n.
grab v.
grade n., v.
gradual adj.
gradually adv.
grain n.
gram (BrE also gramme) n. (abbr. g, gm)
grammar n.
grand adj.
grandchild n.
granddaughter n.
grandfather n.
grandmother n.
grandparent n.
grandson n.
grant v., n.
grass n.
grateful adj.
grave n., adj.
gray (NAmE) —grey
great adj.
greatly adv.
green adj., n.
grey (BrE) (NAmE usually gray) adj., n.
grocery (NAmE usually grocery store) n.
groceries n.
ground n.
group n.
grow v.
grow up
growth n.
guarantee n., v.
guard n., v.
guess v., n.
guest n.
guide n., v.
guilty adj.
gun n.
guy n.



Note:
BrE= British English 
NAmE= North American English
Source: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Seventh Edition).

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