Saturday, July 9, 2011

Noun

A noun is a word which names any person or thing.

*A noun is a word used for naming some person or thing.—J. C. Nesfield.

*A noun is word used as the name of a person, place or thing.—Wren & Martin.

Nouns are of five different kinds:
           i. Concrete
     01. Proper.
     02. Common.
     03. Collective.
     04. Material.
           ii. Abstract
     05. Abstract.

**Note: Material Nouns are also called names of Materials.

i. A Concrete Noun is the name of an object of sense, that is an object which can be seen, touched. Heard, smelt or tasted.

ii. An abstract Noun is the name of a quality, action or state belonging to an object. Softness, smile, wealth etc.
Way of forming Abstract noun:
Abstract Nouns are chiefly derived from:
a) Nouns- infancy, slavery, kingship, kingdom, boyhood, fascism.
b) Verbs- service, protection, affection, attachment, refusal.
c) Adjectives (by adding ness, ce, ty, th, dom, etc.) goodness, holiness, justice, cruelty, length, wisdom, freedom. 


 01. A Proper Noun is the name of one particular person, place, thing or event, as Himalayas, the French Revolution.
A proper Noun is the name of some particular person or place.

 02. A Common Noun denotes no one person or thing in particular, but is common to any and every person or thing of the same kind.
*A common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.—Wren & Martin
a) Thus, man (not any particular man, but any and every man); book (not any particular book like the Quran, the bible, the Vedas; but any and every book.)
b) There are a few Nouns, generally classed as Common, which are sometimes called Singular Nouns, because there is only one of each of them known to us: earth, sun, moon, etc.
c) When God and Lord refer to the Almighty they are proper; but when they refer to the different gods of mythology and temporal lords they are Common.

03. A Collective Noun is the name of a group or collection of persons or things considered as one complete whole.
*A collective Noun denotes a group or collection of similar individuals as one complete whole.—J. C. Nesfield.
Thus, in ‘a flock of sheep’ sheep is a Common Noun, because it stands for any and every sheep; but flock is a Collective Noun, because it stands for all the sheep referred to, taken together, and not any one sheep taken separately.
*A distinction is often made between a collective Noun and a Noun of Multitude:
A Collective Noun denotes one individual whole. Hence, the verb following is singular. The army was defeated.
A Noun of Multitude denotes the individuals of the group Hence the verb is plural although the noun is singular. The jury (i.e. the men on the jury) were divided in their opinions.

04. A Material Noun denotes the matter of substance of which things are made. It is also called the Mass Noun.
*A material Noun denotes the matter or substance of whice thing are made.—J. C. Nesfield.
Thus, river is a Common Noun, but water of which it is made is a Material Noun; sheep is a Common Noun, but mutton, the flesh of a sheep is a Material Noun.

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