Saturday, July 9, 2011

Sentences

A sentence is a group of complete sense.

*A combination of words that makes a complete sense is called a sentence.—J. C. Nesfield.

*A group of words which makes a complete sense is called a sentence.—Wren & Martin.

Sentences may be divided into five classes, each of which may be further subdivided into two.
Affirmative: Affirming something.
Negative: Denying something.

a) Assertive sentences make a simple statement. Examples: I know him. I do not know him.
Structure:
i) Subject + Verb + Object or Noun/Pronoun.
ii) Subject + Verb + not + Object/Complement.
iii) Subject + Auxiliary Verb + not + Principal Verb + Object/Complement.
iv) Subject + V + no/not a + Object/Complement.
v) Subject + do not/does not/did not + V + Object/Complement.
Examples: 
01. We are learning English with care.
02. The boy is not inattentive.
03. Our teacher are well-educated and well-experienced.
04. He does not play in the evening.
05.They did not do the work.

b) Interrogative sentences ask questions. Example: Why is he there?
Structure:
i) Auxiliary Verb (to be) + Subject...............extension?
ii) Auxiliary Verb + Subject + Principal Verb..............extension?
iii) Don't/doesn't/didn't + Subject + Principal Verb.............extension?
iv) 'WH' word + Auxiliary Verb + Subject + Principal Verb...............extension?
v) 'WH' word + Principal Verb................extension?
vi) 'WH' word + Auxiliary Verb + Principal Verb...............extension?
**Note: 'WH' word: Who, which, when, what, whom, where, why, how, etc.
Examples: 
01. Are the students impolite and heedless?
02. Am i not punctual and heedful?
03. Don't you learn your lessons regularly?
04. When will you return your home?
05. How did they solve the problem?
06. Who help you in the studies?

c) Imperative sentences express a command or request. Example: May he live long.
Structure:
i) Verb + Object/Complement............................................full stop.
ii) DO not + Verb + Object/Complement...........................full stop.
iii) Please + Verb + Object/Complement..........................full stop.
iv) Kindly + Verb + Object/Complement............................full stop.
v) Always + Verb + Object/Complement...........................full stop.
vi) Never + Verb + Object/Complement............................full stop.
vii) Let + Subject + Verb + Object/Complement...............full stop.
Examples: 
01. Help the poor and the helpless.
02. Do not look down upon the blind.
03. Please lend me a book and a pen.
04. Kindly participate in my birthday ceremony.
05. Always respect your elders and parents.
06. Never kill your invaluable time in vain.
07. Let us play football in our college-play ground.

d) Optative sentences express a wish. Example: May he not suffers.
Structure:
i) May + you + Verb.........................+ full stop.
ii) Long live + Subject.....................+ full stop.
iii) Would that + sub + Verb...........+ full stop.
iv) Had + Subject + Verb................+ full stop.
v) I wish + I were..............................+ full stop.
Examples: 
01. May Allah bless you.
02. Long live our Headmaster.
03. Would that i were a bird.
04. Had I been a child again.
05. I wish I were a bird.

e) Exclamatory sentences express a sudden feeling or motion. Example: How nice! Alas! Ah!
Structure:
i) How + Adjective + Subject + Verb!
ii) What a/an + Adjective + Subject + Verb!
iii) Alas! How + Adjective + Subject + Verb!
iv) Oh! Ah! How + Adjective + Subject + Verb!
v) Bravo/Hurrah! + Subject +Verb + ............full stop.
vi) Alas! + Subject + Verb+...........................full stop.
Examples: 
01. How charming the scenery is!
02. What a beautiful bird it is!
03. Alas! How helpless the old man is!
04. Oh! How lovely the flower is!
05. Hurrah! Our team has won the match

**NOTE: some make a different division. They classify sentences as:
a) Statements, which simply affirm or deny something.
b) Question, which ask questions.
c) Desires, which contains some desire, order, or request. Example: May he live long.
d) Exclamations, which express a sudden feeling or motion.

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