Definition: A gerund is that forms of the Verb which ends in ‘ing’ and has the force of a Noun and a Verb.
Or, A gerund is a double-part of speech adding ‘ing’ form to a Verb and does the function of a Verb and a Noun in a sentence.
A gerund is a double part of speech—a noun and verb combined.—J. C. Nesfield.
A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in—ing and has the force of a Noun and a Verb.—Wren & Martin.
The Uses of Gerund
a) Gerund is used as a Subject of a Verb.
01. Walking is a good form of exercise.
02. Smoking slows down health.
03. Fishing is a good hobby.
b) Gerund is used as an Object of a Transitive Verb.
01. He started writing.
02. I dislike smoking.
03. They began walking.
c) Gerund is used as an Object of a Preposition.
01. I am fond of reading.
02. We are tired of walking.
03. He went a fishing.
d) Complement used as an Intransitive Verb.
01. My favorite hobby is swimming.
02. Reading is learning.
03. His habit is reciting form the holy Quran.
e) Gerund is used after Possessive Case (my, his, your, our, her, their) etc.
01. We protested against his doing the work.
02. They disagreed to our coming here.
03. She supported your learning.
Verbal Noun: When of and the set before Gerund then its called Verbal Noun.
**Note: Verbal Noun only works for Noun.
01. The reading of history is interesting.
02. The reading of newspaper is imortant.
Difference between Gerund and Verbal Noun
a. I like fishing.
b. I am fond of gardening.
c. Swimming is good exercise.
d. Running is good for health.
e. Walking is a good form of exercise.
f. He began writing.
g. The guest started eating.
h. They went a hunting.
a. The catching of fish is interesting.
b. The writing of letters is a good practice.
c. The reading of books is a good habit.
d. The reading of newspapers is a good habit.
e. The buying of books is a good habit.
f. The listening of reading is very interesting.
g. The eating of a balanced diet is good for health.
h. The hunting of wild animals is interesting.
Differences between Gerund and Present Participle:
a. Seeing is believing.
b. My habit is reading books.
c. Walking is a good exercise.
d. He went a fishing. (on)
e. We went a fishing. (on)
f. The guests began eating.
g. The examinees started writing.
h. He didn’t agree to your going there.
i. My hobby reading.
j. Your hobby is painting.
k. Father strongly dislikes smoking.
l. He prevents him from going there.
m. One should avoid keeping bad company.
n. We should avoid spoiling time.
a. The baby is sleeping.
b. The scenery is Charming.
c. A sleeping snake can’t bite.
d. We heard the girl singing sings.
e. We saw the bird flying.
f. The weather being foul, we stopped our journey.
g. He kept us waiting here.
h. We found him walking.
i. Going to market, father brought a shirt.
j. We saw the bird flying.
k. We saw them running in the sum.
l. Doing the work, he went away.
m. Listing the radio is amusing.
n. Football is an exciting game.
f) Gerund is used after the verbs-(Avoid, enjoy, finish, prevent, stop, start, being, give up, excuse, etc.)
01. Every student should avoid wasting time.
02. Everyone should avoid mixing with bad boys.
03. The candidates started reading the notice.
g) to + present form after the Verbs-(Being, start, love, like, help, prefer, continue, intend, etc.) or just ‘ing’ form without ‘to’.
01.They began doing (to do) the work.
02. Grandmother loves listening (to listen) news on TV.
03. I like fishing (to fish) on holidays.