Saturday, July 9, 2011

Sentences

A sentence is a group of complete sense.

*A combination of words that makes a complete sense is called a sentence.—J. C. Nesfield.

*A group of words which makes a complete sense is called a sentence.—Wren & Martin.

Sentences may be divided into five classes, each of which may be further subdivided into two.
Affirmative: Affirming something.
Negative: Denying something.

a) Assertive sentences make a simple statement. Examples: I know him. I do not know him.
Structure:
i) Subject + Verb + Object or Noun/Pronoun.
ii) Subject + Verb + not + Object/Complement.
iii) Subject + Auxiliary Verb + not + Principal Verb + Object/Complement.
iv) Subject + V + no/not a + Object/Complement.
v) Subject + do not/does not/did not + V + Object/Complement.
Examples: 
01. We are learning English with care.
02. The boy is not inattentive.
03. Our teacher are well-educated and well-experienced.
04. He does not play in the evening.
05.They did not do the work.

The Subject and The Predicate

Every sentence consists of two parts:
(a) The Subject is a word or group of words that denotes the person or thing about which something is said. It must be a noun or a noun equivalent and may consist of any number of words.

(b) The Predicate is a word or a group of words that denotes what is said about the subject. It must contain at least a finite verb expressed or understood.
 
Subject
Predicate
Subject
Predicate
Selena
He
My brother
Sings.
is ill.
has gone.
His name
A clever boy
My father
is known.
will act thus.
is at home.

The subject is often understood in some sentences especially in imperative ones. Thus, Go there=go you there. Sit down=sit you down. In analysing such a sentence, the subject is to be supplied.

Phrases and Clauses


A Phrase is a group of words that dose not make complete senses, dose not contain a finite verb, expressed or understood , but is used as single part of speech.
Examples: Come at once. He come to see me. She was at the point of death.

A Clause is a group of words having a subject and a predicate of its own, but forming part of a sentence.

Examples: I know that he is ill. The boy whom you saw is my brother.

Parts of Speech

*The different kinds of words are called parts of speech.—J. C. Nesfield.

*Words are divided into different kinds or classes, called parts of speech, according to their use; that is, according to the work they do in the sentence.—Wren & martin.

Words are generally divided into eight classes or Parts of speech according to the work they do in a sentence.


01. Noun.
02. Pronoun.
03. Adjective.
04. Verb.
05. Adverb.
06. Preposition.
07. Conjunction.
08. Interjection.



Noun

A noun is a word which names any person or thing.

*A noun is a word used for naming some person or thing.—J. C. Nesfield.

*A noun is word used as the name of a person, place or thing.—Wren & Martin.

Nouns are of five different kinds:
           i. Concrete
     01. Proper.
     02. Common.
     03. Collective.
     04. Material.
           ii. Abstract
     05. Abstract.

**Note: Material Nouns are also called names of Materials.

i. A Concrete Noun is the name of an object of sense, that is an object which can be seen, touched. Heard, smelt or tasted.

ii. An abstract Noun is the name of a quality, action or state belonging to an object. Softness, smile, wealth etc.
Way of forming Abstract noun:
Abstract Nouns are chiefly derived from:
a) Nouns- infancy, slavery, kingship, kingdom, boyhood, fascism.
b) Verbs- service, protection, affection, attachment, refusal.
c) Adjectives (by adding ness, ce, ty, th, dom, etc.) goodness, holiness, justice, cruelty, length, wisdom, freedom. 

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

In Modern English Grammar Nouns are broadly divided into two Categories— (a) Countable Noun (b) Uncountable Noun. 

Countable Nouns:
Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count.
For example: "pen". We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns:
  • dog, cat, animal, man, person
  • coin, note, dollar
  • cup, plate, fork
  • table, chair, suitcase, bag
Countable nouns can be singular or plural:
  • My dog is playing.
  • My dogs are hungry.

Online English Grammar Learning